Exam 3 Study Guide
As usual, let’s just cut to the chase and get the comprehensive study guide up.
This is currently in-progress. Keep checking back to see if it’s been updated until all slides have at least some information for them. :)
The Anasazi were early Pueblo people named by the Navajo – the name means “Enemy Ancestors,” so naturally, the Hopi people don’t like that term. The prefer the term Ancestral Pueblo People, however you still see the term Anasazi used in scholarship today. The Navajo aren’t pueblo people – they migrated from Canada and are ancestors of the Alabascan people.
Terms used to describe “Native American” people vary and are all problematic in their own ways. Different people prefer different things for different reasons. Canada uses the term “First Nations,” or “Aboriginals” and some Native Americans prefer to be called “First Nations” people. Others prefer Native American. Others don’t mind Indian, although that’s not considered PC anymore. As we all know, the term Indian came from the fact that Columbus thought he had landed in India.
The Anasazi were located in Chaco Canyon (New Mexico) and Mesa Verde (in Southern Colorado, near Durango). They were great and extensive traders and probably had contact with the native Americans from Mexico (Toltec, Mayan). Ball courts have been found in Arizona, so obviously there was some kind of culture contact.
He showed a slide of Chaco Canyon and said that each red dot was a different “site”.
A lot of “Great Houses” were found in Chaco Canyon, probably religious sites. One of these Great Houses is Pueblo Bonito.
Anasazi, Pueblo Bonito, 850-1150
Second Image Here
If you want more visuals, including a really nice diagram, you can go here and check out this site.
I also came across this, which is an interactive map of Pueblo Bonito. You click on the rooms and there is a listing of the artifacts found inside, I guess. I’m still trying to understand it entirely, but there are images of the rooms on the clickable ones. It’s pretty cool.
It is likely there were “other people” here as well. (I’m not sure what he meant by that. Maybe non Anasazi people?)
Pueblo Bonito is a Great House, most likely used as a ceremonial or ritual site.
The circles surrounding it are called Kiva – these are common in Anasazi structures and you might even find them on some of the homes. On a Kiva, you always see something on the bottom in the center referencing an opening – this is where the Anasazi believe the first people came from. It is referred to as the “Sipapu”, or the “Hole of Emergence”
The Anasazi believed in an underworld (like the Mayans).
Archeologists believe that they built here for about 200 years – the idea that you have this sacred area and you keep building and building. They probably connected the area with one of their mythological stories.
Pueblo Bonito consisted of about 650 rooms and 40 Kivas.
It was a ceremonial center, so all of those sites on the map, you had some great houses that people would come to. Essentially, people didn’t live at Pueblo Bonito, they would make pilgrimages there, coming there for certain rituals and maybe burials. Burials have been found at Pueblo Bonito and were most likely elites, upper class citizens and priests. It is possible that the elite could have lived here, and it’s likely that the priests did live here.
There is debate that the Anasazi may have practiced sacrifice or cannibalism and that that could have been one of the reasons for their downfall, so it’s possible that ritual cannibalism may have been practiced here.
_SLIDE_ : A recreation of a scene at Pueblo Bonito
Notice the smoke coming out of the Kivas.
Here you would have a lot of performances. Dances. The dancers would come out of the Kivas – the would come out of the Hole of Emergence and they would take on the role of spirits coming out to dance for the people. When the dances were over, the dancers would leave, the spirits would leave. The Kivas are still sacred spaces today and the Hopi still practice these dances – tourists are not allowed into them – the idea that these are not only entertainment, but that they are religious – sacred things are going on.
Kivas are tall structures, probably 4-5 stories.
The Adena people occupied the areas of Ohio, Indiana, W. Virginia, Kentucky, New York, Pennsylvania. They were once thought to be farmers who lived under the rule of a chief in these permanent settlements, but new discoveries have led archeologists to believe that they didn’t really live in a stratified society. We now believe that although they were farmers, they were also hunter-gatherers and were a nomadic people who would move around according to the seasons, occupying specific regions during specific times of the year. Therefore, they likely occupied the area of this mound, and others, only during a specific time, not year-round like was once believed. It is not believed that they lived in organized villages.
We don’t know what the Adena called themselves because, unlike the Mayans and Aztecs in Mezo-America, they don’t have any written language. The name “Adena” comes from an estate where one of these mounds was found. They are now referred to as the Early Woodlands People, but for this class, we will refer to them as the Adena. They, like other Native American cultures of the east, are known as the Mound Builders because we found so many mounds constructed by these people.
Adena, Pipe, 500 BCE – 50 CE
8 inches, stone, found in a grave.
Humanoid figure, reminiscent of Meso-American art. Notice the openings for ear spools. This shows that there was possibly some contact with Meso-Americans through trade. This is reminiscent of the Standing Figures from Teotihuacan – the arms are at the side, legs bent, mouth open. The mouth could have been open as a stylistic trait, or it could be showing the figure as alert and ready for something to take place, or being ready for receiving. It could also be representative of taking the tobacco in and blowing it out.
Naturalism is present in the chest, arms and facial characteristics, but it is heavily stylized.
A lot of pipes have been found in this area. Tobacco was most likely sacred to these people as it is today to people in this area (Cherokee, etc.) (Use of Archeology to discover what people might have thought). So these were probably ceremonial. Native Americans believe that tobacco was given to them by the creator – when they smoke the tobacco and blow the smoke up into the air, this is seen to be an offering to the creator. This is a very sacred substance. It was also believed that the smoke could be an offering to ancestors and other spirits. Even today, the Navajo believe it to be “one of the 4 sacred plants,” so even in the southwest it is very important. When used, certain kinds of tobacco can cause hallucinations, so these would probably be used by shamans for trances and things like that. It was used in this religious context and was a common practice all over the Americas before Christianity came and wiped that out. It’s also possible that hallucinogenics were another reason for the focus on frogs in Shamanistic religions.
To use the pipe, tobacco was placed at the bottom of the sculpture, and the opening in the head is where you would intake the tobacco.
Mississipians, Cahokia, 1000 CE-1400 CE
- Near Modern Day St. Lous
- Farmers (corn). Society had more stratification
- Some people denied creation by Mississippians (what does this mean?)
- Had Burial Grounds, Metropolitan Area
- Revered the Sun, had a sun god
- Only Elite buried in mounds, commoners buried in cemeteries.
- Mississippians- 800ce.
- Mound builders.
- Major site is Cahokia.. Oaklahoma, Ohio, St. Louis, Illinois.
- Ceremonial sites
- Upper and lower class, Shaman and priests has more power
- Farming people (corn) like mayan, squash.
- Natchez people are current decedents
- Connected to sun god, King was called great sun.
- Missouri and Illinois border. 1000-1400ce
- Abandoned in 1400.
- 120 mounds- not used for burial
- cemetary came into picture
- planned city
- human sacrifice was practiced
- “chunkey” game- throw stone guess how far it would go.
- Stone (sun moving through sky)
- Mississippians, Monks Mound, Cahokia, 1000-1400
- 100 feet tall
- Not what Mississippians called it, monks built houses around it
- Shaman lived on mound
- A-lined with equinoxes.
- Mound 72, Cahokia, 1000-1400ce
- Alines monks mound
- Burial- wealthy man (20000 beads and 2 men under him and many
- People around him (52 very young women and 1 older) 4 men no heads or hands, mass sacrifice
- Copper, arrow heads, chunkey disks
- Alines equinoxes
- Over 100 people
- Woodhenge, Cahoia, 1000-1400ce
- Solar and sacred calendar
- 48 posts- circle
- Equinoxes and solstices, sun lined up in certain places.
- A few different times to build, different types of poles
- Only really needed 3 posts but had many, don’t know why
Europe and the Near East in Antiquity
- Beginning of Christian Beliefs.
- 3 was a very important number – signified the Trinity (Father, Son, Holy Spirit)
- Christian beliefs weren’t formed as canon until around 325 CE (Council at Mycia)
- Bunch of religions coming together – Christianity contained many parts of the mystery religions, many ideas – Baptism, Human Sacrifice (Christ as a lamb), etc. Relation to Greek Religion.
- Centers around Jesus, born of Virgin Mary
- Crucified at about 33, rose 3 days later
- Jesus was born with out sin
- Dove refers to Christianity
- Lamb- sacrifice
- Ritual cannibalism- wine and bread (body and blood)
- Water purification- Christ being baptized
Early Christian, Good Shepherd, 270 CE-280 CE
- Christ referred to himself as Shepherd, Apollo was also a shepherd.
- Looks like Greek art – Contrapostto, Folds in clothing, face.
- Found in turkey
- Other sculptures with this one, picture of Jonah
Bascilica Plan Church
- Early Christian Churches were based on Roman and Greek architecture
- Churches unable to be built until Constantine
- Dome-rome (pantheon) no opening
- Narthex and atrium
Central Plan Church
- Basilica- plan* continues to gothic and Rennaisance.
- Apse (semi circle) mosaics, alter
- Nave( pews)
- Atrium- fountain
- Aisle and nave
Early Christian, Santa Sabina, 422-432
- Columns create rhythm.
- Dedicated to Martyrs
- Sabina was killed for her beliefs
- Much more decorated, mosaics, Corinthian columns
- Story windows
- In Rome
Byzantine Empire: 526-726ce
Constantine moved capital, 324ce
395ce- empire split to east and west
northern Africa, turkey, Italy, sicily,
Matthew = angel or man
Mark = Lion
Luke = Ox
John = Eagle
Byzantine, Emperor Justinian and his Attendants 547 CE
This piece is divided into 3 – The state, the church and Justinian (who is the head of both). Three, of course, represents the father, son & holy spirit.
Justinian is the focal point and he is connecting with both the church and state. He’s holding the paten, which holds the eucharist wafers and he’s wearing purple (head of state).
Moving away from humanism – all about religion, all about god
style- no expression on faces, very tall and lean, no drapery in cloths
not natural look, look floating, overlapping, hierarchy in color,
no longer about the humans but more about the spiritual.
Moving away from realism.
Lack of perspective in comparison to earlier works we’ve seen.
Man on right in dark clothing is bishop – Maximianus
Emperor who began construction of church – made Christianity the only lawful religion of the empire.
Next on right is main benefactor of church
Byzantine, Empress Theodora & her Attendants 547 CE
8ft x 12 ft
On the other side of the church, in the apse is this mosaic of Empress Theodora. These mosaics work together.
Purple robe = head of state.
She holds the chalice that contains the wine for the Eucharist – the Emperor & Empress are giving the Eucharist to the people.
There is a fountain, reference to baptism, but could also indicate that Theodora is outside the church in the courtyard – note the man pulling up the curtain to grant her entrance into the church. Indicates that Theodora is following Justinian. So even though she’s important, she’s still behind him.
On the left of Theodora, 2 men, on the right, women (her court).
On the bottom of her robe, 3 men – the 3 magi who brought Christ gifts. This also tells us about her power that she has these 3 powerful kings on her robe.
Death/Resurrection of the Lord – Rabbula – 6th c.
Matthew Mark Luke John (4 Gospels Book)
Signed by the monk Rabbulah, that’s where the name comes from.
In these gospel books they had illustrations of the stories, so on top, we have the death (the Crucifixion scene) and on the bottom, we have the resurrection of Christ.
17 Carrying his own cross, he went out to the place of the Skull (which in Aramaic is called Golgotha).
18 There they crucified him, and with him two others—one on each side and Jesus in the middle.
19 Pilate had a notice prepared and fastened to the cross. It read: Jesus of Nazareth, The King of the Jews.
It’s important to know that at the Crucifixion you’ll see John the Apostle, The Virgin Mary, Mary Magdeline & Mary Tee. Also, sometimes on the Crucified Christ you’ll find a slash – they cut him to make sure he was dead.
Here at the bottom, you’ll see the men casting lots for his clothing at the bottom. Notice Jesus in a blue and yellow cloak. In the background, you’ll see the moon & the sun (reiterates that a lot of Christianity comes from pagan religions)
Christians believe that Christ died on the cross – shed blood for our sins (human sacrifice) he dies, three days later, he rises.
On the bottom, we have resurrection.
Haloed – Virgin Mary, Mary Magdeline, John the Apostle, an Angel
So here, you have the angel rolling away the stone, here you have the 2 Marys, and here you have Jesus & the 2 Marys falling at his feet.
The resurrection is central to the Christian religion.
Byzantine, Virgin & Child with Saints & Angels 6th Century
27 inches x 18 inches
Referred to as an icon (image) – during the Byzantine era, there was a rising up against images. It was Emperor Leo the Third in 726 CE (part of the Eastern Church) who began the campaign against images. This began because of the second commandment – the church was worried about Idol Worship. The destruction of images is called Iconoclasm.
It is doubtful, however, that people were actually worshipping images, and it’s more likely that it was a political move on behalf of the emperor.
Catholics allow images (saints, Christ, etc.) while the Protestent church still does not allow images to this day (white walls, an altar and a cross).
Because of this iconoclasm, a lot of the images are now gone.
In this Image, we see the Virgin Mary with Baby Jesus seated on her lap. To her left, St. Theodore and to her right, St. George (he slayed the dragon, reference to Christianity slaying paganism.)
In the background are two angels, looking up to the heavens. Mary is looking to her left, not engaging the viewer.
Similar to the mosaics of Justinian & Theodora, their bodies are hidden under their robes. There is a sense of floating feet with Theodore.
Their halos are a reminder that they are divine.
Middle Ages – 500 CE – 1400 CE
Early Middle Ages, Charlemagne, 9th Century
Bronze, 9 & 1/2 ft high.
Charlemagne, also known as Charles the Great, was an important ruler from 768-814. During his reign, he ruled Western Germany, France and Italy. (Italy no longer part of the Byzantine Empire – it’s now part of the Carolingian Empire.) Charlemagne spread Christianity throughout his kingdom, but he also spread Roman and Greek culture – this includes art and architecture.
Pope Leo the 3rd declared Charlemagne emperor – he is considered the 2nd Roman emperor (following Constantine).
He was fluent in Latin and could understand Greek – appreciated Classical Culture.
This portrait is an Equestrian Sculpture. (The previous Equestrian Sculpture we’ve seen was of Marcus Arulueus – thought at the time, though, to be Constantine, so that’s a reference to him as well.) Even with just this, we can see him trying to bring back classical culture.
The horse is walking, showing us Charlemagne in a parade. He is wearing his imperial garment, indicating that he is reigning the entire empire. He is holding the orb, showing that he dominates the world.
This is also based on an equestrian sculpture of King Theodoric that is now lost (First German Ruler of Rome).
Important because he is going to bring Christianity & Classical culture to his kingdom. Charlemagne will also commission a lot of gospel books.
Early Middle Ages, Matthew, 9th Century
1 ft x 10 inches
Ink & Tempura on Vellum (calf skin)
Coronation Gospel commissioned by Charlemagne
He has an ink pen and an ink horn
In the background there was probably a depiction of an angel we can no longer see.
Matthew has a halo.
More naturalism than in previous works – influence of classical culture. You can make out Matthew’s body, use of drapery.
Early Middle Ages, Matthew, 9th Century
10 inches x 8 inches
Ink & Tempura on Vellum
Part of the Ebbow Gospels
Here we see Matthew writing in his Gospel, very different than previous works, very stylized. Reminiscent of expressionism. Conveys a sense of urgency – Matthew is quickly writing down his gospel.
The landscape has lines, the lines are repeated in his garment.
Drastic difference from the previous Matthew – previous was calm, classical – this one is quick, urgent (Hellenistic) and we get an emotion.
Piece is in profile and we have perspective. One of his feet is even going a different way than the other one.
Early Middle Ages, Gero Crucifix, 970
6ft 2 inches, Oak
Archbishop Gero commissioned for his cathedral
this crucifix is referred to as a reliquary. on the back of the head is where you place the Eucharist wafers.
Page with Otto III Enthroned, Aachen Gospels, 996
tempera on vellum
1′ x 9″
This is the dedication page of the Aachen Gospels. Otto the 3rd is in the top, center. In the Mandorla like Christ is sometimes. You notice on top of Otto there is a hand – this is the hand of God, indicating his divine right to rule. Surrounding Otto are the 4 Evangelists. Holding up Otto III we have Tellus (Woman holding up the world like Atlas). The men flanking Otto are holding lances – this may reference the relic of the Holy Lance – the lance that pierced Christ’s side. On the bottom are 2 warriors and 2 bishops – church & state (and the union of such). Otto presides over both.
Clearly, this is telling us that he is a powerful man, ordained by God to rule, reigns over the state and church. He is holding onto the orb with the cross – reigns over the world.
Otto is frontal – there is a little perspective here.
Durham Cathedral – 1087-1133
Located in England
The interior slide looks into the Apse and the Knave (side isles – knave arcave). Also, here in this church, we have the alternating/rotating columns, compound columns. Cheverons on the columns. Probably influence from Islamic architecture. There is a gallery up on top. Rose window – we’ll also see these during the Gothic period.
Ceiling has ribbed vaulting, referred to as 4 part ribbed vaulting because the space is split up into fours.
On the exam, we won’t be expected to know what church it is – but the 5 characteristic elements found in the church.
Virgin and Child, 12th Century
Wood – 2 ft, 7 inches. Reliquary
Notice that Christ looks older – not like a toddler at all. This references wisdom.
With this sculpture, you see the idea of Mary being this throne of Wisdom – this is what they refer to her as when Christ is seated in her lap. Mary holds a very important place in the church.
Reliquary because there are two holes – one on her chest and one on her shoulders where you place the Eucharist – the idea of that being the body of Christ.
There is drapery, but the figures are very stiff – not a lot of movement.
1150 – 1300
Still Middle Ages
During the Gothic period, cities become more important, they start guilds – like unions – for the artists. These guilds were made to protect the artists – would set up standards for selling & marketing art and would give economic protection. These will continue through & be very important in the Renaissance. During the Gothic period people are still looking back through classical art.
Churches will become much more elaborate – in regards to size & decoration
the idea is when you walk into a Gothic church, you get the idea of the divine, connect with the divine – rose windows, light.
On Gothic churches, going to see portals with more sculptures – jamb figures – rose windows (larger, more of them) flying buttresses, but these begin during the Romanesque period, but become more prominent during the Gothic period- they support the walls.
Elements of Architecture: The Gothic Church
Gothic, Chartres Cathedral, 12th century
Chartres Cathedral, Interior
Chartres Cathedral, Plan
Chartres is dedicated to Virgin Mary
This church was was built on top of a pagan site. (this is significant – the catholics would tell people they were replacing the pagan religion, even though both religions have virgin goddesses)
Part of this church burned down in 1194
Rose Window, Portal. Notice the #3 – Trinity.
Porches, Trancept, Crossing, Aspe, Ambulatory, radiating Chapels.
The second level is referred to as a triforum, rather than a gallery – notice the 3 openings, that’s where it gets its name. Also, the 3 again – the trinity.
- Columns create rhythm.